Parasites can live in different organs of the human body and do not indicate their presence for years. In this case, the patient complains of a violation of well-being and problems with the organ in which the parasite settled. A person can be treated for years, but at the same time will not get any improvement, because the objective reason for the malaise is a pest that has settled in the body.
Many believe that if they wash their hands and avoid touching stray animals, they are insured against parasites, but this is not the case. You can get infected if you don't wash vegetables very thoroughly or eat raw meat and fish, which is particularly important in the modern sushi craze. Therefore, with a prolonged deterioration in well-being, it is advisable to conduct tests for parasites, so as not to waste time treating non-existent diseases.
Fecal analysis for parasites
If you suspect you or your child may have parasites but do not know what tests to do for parasites, you should see a doctor. The simplest and therefore the very first analysis that is offered to you is a stool analysis. After a stool sample reaches the laboratory, the specialist tries to find worm eggs in it.
This analysis allows you to determine the presence of different types of parasites, including:
- roundworms or nematodes such as roundworms, whipworms, necators, hookworms;
- flukes or flukes such as liver flukes, cat leeches, schistosomes;
- Tapeworms such as beef tapeworm, pork tapeworm, broadband worm.
The main disadvantage of this parasite test is its low reliability as the helminths may not lay eggs long enough or lay eggs at certain times when they are reproducing. Therefore, such an analysis is usually performed three times, but even then 100% accuracy cannot be guaranteed.
In addition to fecal analysis, enterobiasis analysis is used to check for worm eggs. It is used to detect pinworm eggs both in the faeces and in the skin folds around the anus, the so-called scraping in enterobiosis. In order to make this analysis as meaningful as possible, it is also carried out several times with a break of a few days.
Blood test for parasites
A fairly effective and modern method of detecting parasites is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or ELISA. With this test you can detect antibodies and antigens against parasites in a blood sample.
Antigens are the parasites themselves and their parts and their metabolites, and antibodies are immunoglobulin proteins that the body produces to fight antigens. This method allows you to identify a variety of parasites in the human body.
The great advantage of a blood test for parasites is the opportunity to detect them early in the body, when there are still very few pests and their eggs are definitely not found in the stool analysis. The test for parasites by ELISA is very simple, it requires a blood sample from a vein. The study time for this sample is 1-9 days, and then a result is obtained, the reliability of which is 95%.
In an acute course of helminthiasis, other methods of blood analysis for parasites are also used, such as the immunofluorescence reaction (RIF), the indirect hemagglutination reaction, the latex agglutination reaction (RAL). In addition, ultrasound and X-ray studies of human organs, computed tomography, endobiopsy and endoscopy are used. Which tests for parasites are carried out and which examinations are carried out is usually decided by the attending physician, who analyzes the patient's complaints and symptoms.
How to donate feces for analysis for parasites
In order to get the most accurate result, it is necessary to correctly pass tests for parasites. A stool analysis for worm eggs must be brought to the laboratory in a special disposable container with a tightly screwed lid. Samples of urine or secretions from the genitals should not get into the material selected for analysis.
To collect a stool sample, empty the sample into a clean, dry container and then, from the collected material, collect a stool sample with a volume of about two teaspoons, which is approximately 8-10 cubic centimeters. The sample must be taken from different parts of the stool mass, from above, from the sides and from the inside.
To get the most reliable results of analysis for parasites, feces should be brought to the laboratory within 30-45 minutes after defecation. If you need to keep the feces longer, you should put it in the refrigerator, but not more than 5-8 hours. It should be in a closed container and at a temperature of +4 - +8 ° C. But even such storage can impair the effectiveness of the analysis.
The results of such an analysis can be negative if parasites are not detected, and positive if parasites are detected. Then it will be shown what worms a person has.
How to conduct an analysis for enterobiasis
Enterobiasis, or pinworms, is most common in children. To make a correct diagnosis, you can conduct scraping for enterobiasis or a blood test for parasites in children. By scratching, you can identify the eggs of the parasite. Do a scratch in the morning before going to the toilet. It is necessary to scrape the surface of the skin folds around the anus with a cotton swab dipped in glycerin. After that, the stick is placed in a plastic test tube and tightly closed with a lid. If necessary, you can keep the tube in the fridge for several hours. In order to get a reliable result of the analysis, it is necessary to scrape at least three times over a period of several days.
A blood test for parasites in children allows you to determine the presence or absence of one parasite at once. But often children are afraid to donate blood, so a stool analysis is preferable for them. Such blood and stool tests can be performed in almost all of the clinic's laboratories or in any private laboratory that conducts such research.